The bladder is a muscular organ located in the pelvis. Its purpose is to store and empty urine. A normal bladder typically holds about 500 mL of urine. During urination, the bladder is squeezed to pass urine out through the urethra.
Bladder issues that we treat:
Sometimes the urine stored in the bladder can become infected with bacteria. Bacteria can irritate the wall of the bladder causing painful urination, urgency, and frequency. These infections are typically resolved with antibiotics. We then look into why the infection happened in the first place. Incomplete bladder emptying, stones in the urinary tract, and weakened immune systems are all potential causes of bladder infection.
Hematuria or blood in the urine may be a harmless finding or a sign of a more serious problem in the urinary tract. We typically evaluate hematuria using imaging studies for the kidneys such as a renal ultrasound or CT scan. We evaluate the bladder with cystoscopy. This involves placing a small camera into the bladder to rule out any tumors or polyps that may cause hematuria.
Cancerous tumors can form in the lining of the bladder. The most common symptom of bladder cancer is blood in the urine. If identified early most tumors can be managed using a special scope to remove tumors from the inside of the bladder. Larger and more aggressive tumors sometimes require chemotherapy and removal of the bladder.
An overactive bladder results in urinary frequency, urgency, and urinary leakage. This is a common condition which can disrupt a person’s work and social life. Overactive bladder is managed with dietary counseling, medication, physical therapy, and nerve stimulation therapy.
Urinary retention is the inability of the bladder to empty. This can result in bleeding, infection, pain, discomfort, and sometimes damage to the kidneys. Urinary retention is managed with medication, surgery, and catheters for bladder drainage.
Urinary incontinence is the involuntary leakage of urine. This is a common problem that can lead to social isolation and embarrassment. Bladder leakage can result from an overactive bladder (urge incontinence) or from the weakening of pelvic floor muscles (stress incontinence). Urge incontinence is often managed with medication and stress incontinence is managed with surgery.
Interstitial Cystitis or (IC) is an inflammatory bladder condition that results in chronic bladder pain, pressure, and discomfort. Based on the severity, this condition can be very disruptive to one’s quality of life. Management requires a comprehensive approach and includes dietary changes, physical therapy, medication, and surgery.